Between Classicism and Modernity
Bad Kissingen, the Bavarian ‘Great Spa’ that bridges nineteenth century neoclassicism and modernity, is outstanding for the reform era of the early twentieth century. Architect Max Littmann built and rebuilt almost the entire spa in exceptional architecture using innovative forms and materials; the unparalleled Wandelhalle pump room is the largest structure of its kind in the world. Development took place outside the medieval walled town, guided by the cluster of springs, the Saale River, and the oldest formal spa garden outside an urban context, the whole making a seamless transition into parks and wooded hills. Internationalism increased from 1874 with visits by German Imperial Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. His living quarters are preserved at the Upper Saline, part of a second spa quarter distinguished by early industrial-scale facilities for the production of brine, an important feature of European spas. Health tourism remains vibrant in this ‘Great Spa’ maintained in its original function.